“Left-wing” Communism, An Infantile Disorder
A Basic Understandings of the Communist Party
A Characterisation of Economic Romanticism
A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy
First published in 1859, the Critique is the precursor for the systematic theoretical analysis of political economy expounded in Capital. In this work Marx examines the problem of commodities and commodity production, as well as the question of money as a universal measure of value and medium of exchange. This examination provides the crucial methodological basis for understanding the labour theory of value and surplus value — the key concepts of Marxist economics. Maurice Dobb, eminent Marxist economist, has provided an introduction which explains the significance of the Critique within the body of Marx’s economic work.
The present edition is reprinted from the 1970 edition published in Moscow by Progress Publishers, in London by Lawrence & Wishart, and in New York by International Publishers, Inc. This translation from Germna by S. W. Ryazanskaya, edited by Maurice Dobb has been made from Marx/Engels, Werke, Band 13, Dietz Verlag, Berlin, 1964. The aim has been to make the translation as close as possible to original. When for the sake of clarity it has been found necessary to insert a few words these are enclosed in square brackets. Italicised passages and words indicate emphasis by Marx; but following the English custom titles of publications and foreign words are also italicised. Footnotes and marginal notes by Marx are indicated by asterisks, the editor’s footnotes by index letters, and reference notes by superscript numbers.
A Critique of Soviet Economics
These writings of Mao Tse-tung, brought together here under the title A Critique of Soviet Economics, date from the period during and immediately after the Great Leap Forward, a time when the Chinese Revolution began to break decisively with the Soviet Union and its model of development. With the Great Leap, a distinctive Chinese road to socialism emerged. But it was a road paved with a decade of controversy over the course of China’s socialist development. At the heart of many of those disputes within the Chinese Communist Party was the question of the applicability of the Russian experience to building socialism in China.
A Critique of Soviet Economics can usefully be read from several closely interwoven perspectives: (1) as a crucial initial summing up by Mao of what the Soviet model was and what it implied for China; (2) as a strong defense of the Great Leap Forward from the perspective of uninterrupted revolution; (3) as a path breaking examination of the principles of Soviet political economy and of several key aspects of the Russian revolutionary experience, particularly the years, under Stalin’s leadership.
An Appeal to the Young
An Appeal to the Young was first published in 1880 in Kropotkin’s paper, La Revolte, and was soon thereafter issued as a pamphlet. It has been published in all major languages of the world and even today it’s appeal is as soul-stirring and effective as it was in his times.
This is addressed to the young generation at the threshold of entering into the professions. Every young man and woman has this question: “What am I going to be?”. Kropotkin argues with his young friends that after having spent time learning trades and sciences at the cost of society it is our turn to put our knowledge and experience to the service of the people and not make use of our “acquirements as instruments of plunder” for our own gain. He asks the young people to look beyond the narrow boundaries of their professions and ponder what for they have acquired their skills. With logic and passion Kropotkin appeals to the younger generation ready to launch its career that it can either “develop an insatiable longing for pleasure at any price” or apply their intelligence, abilities and knowledge to “help on the enfranchisement of those who today grovel in misery and in ignorance”.
Prince Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921) was a well-known Anarchist revolutionary of Russia. He was an eminent geographer and geologist but left everything to join the revolutionary movement in 1870. He was arrested but he escaped abroad and settled in England in 1886.
Anarchism or Socialism?
“Stalin sets out to explain the ideas of Marxism in opposition to those of the anarchists. The book was addressed to the ordinary rank and file workers, and contains a very simple and popular exposition of the fundamental questions of Marxist theory; it is a model of how profound questions of theory should be linked with the immediate tasks of the working class struggle.”
Away With All Pests
To know about Maoist China is to know about the historic days when power was in the hands of the people and they were the masters of their destiny. This was the time when phenomenal achievements were being made everywhere from the sphere of production to culture, education and healthcare. Particularly, during the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), on one hand there was an upsurge of mass movement against the capitalist roaders trying to capture the party and state machinery and an intense two line struggle was raging throughout the society including the factories, collective farms, communes and all fields of education, healthcare and culture, while on the other hand this revolutionary zeal of the masses was creating new socialist institutions, relations and values in every walk of life and new landmarks of social justice, equality and material progress were being created.
Dr. Joshua S. Horn, the author of this book, was a doctor in the tradition of Dr. Norman Bethune who worked selflessly alongside the Chinese workers and peasants in their endeavour to build a new society. He came from a poor family and had to struggle hard to get his medical education. He worked as a doctor on a ship on which he went for the first time to China in 1936, for a few weeks. He was a lecturer in the Cambridge University for some time and joined the British Army as a doctor during the second World War. He was influenced by the Chinese revolution and left his lucrative and respected job at the Birmingham Hospital and volunteered for medical service in China. He spent fifteen years in China (from 1954 to 1969) working as a doctor and was part of the groundbreaking efforts of creating a healthcare system which was truly for the people and to a large extent run by the people. A large number of mobile medical teams were created to take health services to the common masses even in the most backward and remote areas. More than a million peasants and workers were trained as “bare foot doctors.” The years that Dr. Horn spent in China were the period of two great experiments — the Great Leap Forward and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. During both of these social experiments, a lot was done in the field of medicine and healthcare and Dr. Horn’s book gives us a firsthand account of those days.
यह कय्यूर की कहानी है जो उत्तरी केरल में मालाबार इलाके में स्थित कसरगोद तालुक का एक गाँव है। यह उस गाँव के किसानों के न्यायोचित संघर्ष की कहानी है। यह कय्यूर के उन चार शहीदों की गाथा है जिन्होंने 1943 में अत्याचारी ज़मींदारों और ब्रिटिश गुलामी के खि़लाफ किसानों के संघर्ष का नेतृत्व किया था और हँसते-हँसते फाँसी के फन्दे को चूम लिया था। यह उन वीरों की कहानी का ही एक हिस्सा है जिन्होंने देश की आज़ादी और ग़रीब जनता की बेहतर ज़िन्दगी के लिए संघर्ष में अपना जीवन न्योछावर कर दिया था। यह हमारे अतीत और भविष्य के शहीदों की शहादत की लम्बी शृंखला की ही एक कड़ी है।
अगर कय्यूर के संघर्ष का सामान्य इतिहास लिखा जाता तो यह कुछ ही पृष्ठों में समा जाता और तब अनेक तथ्य छुपे ही रह जाते। लोगों के दुर्निवार साहस, उनकी उफनती भावनाओं, राजनीतिक समस्याओं और आर्थिक मुद्दों को सामने लाने के लिए एक पूरे उपन्यास की ही ज़रूरत थी। कन्नड़ के प्रसिद्ध साहित्यकार निरंजन ने तथ्य और कथा को मिलाकर जो कहानी पेश की है वह अद्भुत है तथा तथ्य से अधिक सत्य है।
कय्यूर के किसान संघर्ष की गाथा बताने वाला यह उपन्यास कन्नड़ में चिरस्मरणेय नाम से छपा था और बेहद लोकप्रिय हुआ था। ‘चिरस्मरण’ नाम से मलयालम में और ‘द स्टार्स शाइन ब्राइटली’ नाम से अंग्रेज़ी में भी इसका अनुवाद हो चुका है। सुपरिचित कवि और पत्रकार रामकृष्ण पाण्डेय का यह हिन्दी अनुवाद पूरे हिन्दी भाषी क्षेत्र में काफी लोकप्रिय हुआ।
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